Adrenal steroid hormone synthesis

When people have adrenal insufficiency they must be sure to pay special attention to times of increased stress on the body such as those undergoing surgery, those suffering from an illness or severe injury, and those who are pregnant. Even taking part in strenuous sports or exercise or working night shifts can affect cortisol levels. Some of these types of stress would require additional treatment to recover including “stress” dosages of corticosteroids, which may be given either intravenously or orally. When the person recovers from the stress situation, they can usually return to their usual amounts of medications.

Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis . Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was regulated through the androgen receptor in the wild-type male rats, but not in the TMF male rats. To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide , an antiandrogen drug that competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for androgen receptors , and dihydrotestosterone were administered to normal male rats. Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells.

Aldosterone is part of a group of linked hormones, which form the renin– angiotensin –aldosterone system. Activation of this system occurs when there is decrease in blood flow to the kidneys following loss of blood volume or a drop in blood pressure (. due to a haemorrhage ). Renin is an enzyme that leads to a series of chemical reactions resulting in the production of angiotensin II , which in turn stimulate aldosterone release. Aldosterone causes an increase in salt and water reabsorption into the bloodstream from the kidney thereby increasing the blood volume, restoring salt levels and blood pressure.

DHT is a potent agonist of the AR, and is in fact the most potent known endogenous ligand of the receptor. It has an affinity (K d ) of to  nM for the human AR, which is about 2- to 3-fold higher than that of testosterone (K d = to  nM) [44] and 15–30 times higher than that of adrenal androgens . [45] In addition, the dissociation rate of DHT from the AR is 5-fold slower than that of testosterone. [46] The EC 50 of DHT for activation of the AR is  nM, which is about 5-fold stronger than that of testosterone (EC 50 =  nM). [47] In bioassays , DHT has been found to be - to 10-fold more potent than testosterone. [44]

Adrenal steroid hormone synthesis

adrenal steroid hormone synthesis

DHT is a potent agonist of the AR, and is in fact the most potent known endogenous ligand of the receptor. It has an affinity (K d ) of to  nM for the human AR, which is about 2- to 3-fold higher than that of testosterone (K d = to  nM) [44] and 15–30 times higher than that of adrenal androgens . [45] In addition, the dissociation rate of DHT from the AR is 5-fold slower than that of testosterone. [46] The EC 50 of DHT for activation of the AR is  nM, which is about 5-fold stronger than that of testosterone (EC 50 =  nM). [47] In bioassays , DHT has been found to be - to 10-fold more potent than testosterone. [44]

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