Hartnup disorder is an autosomal recessive impairment of neutral amino acid transport affecting the kidney tubules and small intestine. The disorder results from defects in the specific transport system responsible for neutral amino acid transport across the brush-border membrane of renal and intestinal epithelium. Deficiencies in the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 19 gene (symbol SLC6A19) are associated with Hartnup disorder. The encoded protein is also referred to as the system B(0) neutral amino acid transporter 1 [B(0)AT1] protein. The characteristic diagnostic feature of Hartnup disorder is a dramatic neutral hyperaminoaciduria. Additionally, individuals excrete indolic compounds that originate from the bacterial degradation of unabsorbed tryptophan. The reduced intestinal absorption and increased renal loss of tryptophan lead to a reduced availability of tryptophan for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + and NADP + ) biosynthesis. As a consequence affected individuals frequently exhibit pellegra-like rashes
It’s also important to note that 50% of organic farms are using organic mulch/compost and 41% are using no-till or minimum till cropping. There are drastic differences in soil health resulting from applying synthetic nitrogen fertilizer versus manure versus composted manure versus cover crops to your soil. Numerous studies show this, the longest ongoing ones being from the Morrows Plots at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Rather than depleting soil organic carbon/fertility as synthetic nitrogen fertilizer does, manures, compost, and cover crops all improve fertility and carbon reservoirs when properly used–especially so in the case of compost and cover crops. Soil microbiologist Dr. Elaine Ingham rightfully attributes the benefits of compost use to the introduction of massive quantities of beneficial soil microbes created during the hot composting process. Those symbiont microbes mine nutrition and water from the soil for the plants in exchange for carbohydrates the plants produce through photosynthesis.