Upon endocytic PRR binding, actin - myosin cytoskeletal rearrangement adjacent to the plasma membrane occurs in a way that endocytoses the plasma membrane containing the PRR-PAMP complex, and the microbe. Phosphatidylinositol and Vps34 - Vps15 - Beclin1 signalling pathways have been implicated to traffic the endocytosed phagosome to intracellular lysosomes , where fusion of the phagosome and the lysosome produces a phagolysosome. The reactive oxygen species , superoxides and hypochlorite bleach within the phagolysosomes then kill microbes inside the phagocyte.
Topical application of a cream containing 5% of an astaxanthin containing oil (% astaxanthin within the oil; µM final concentration) in otherwise healthy women at 1mL twice daily to the face for eight weeks was sufficient to reduce wrinkle and 'Crows feet' formation associated with improved elasticity of the skin.  Age spots were also reduced as assessed by normal and UV lamp photographs, and while there was no overall moisturizing effect a subgroup with dry skin appeared to see some benefits and TEWL (whole group) was reduced.