Anti inflammatory steroid drugs

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[3] Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, Kuscuoglu N, Wilson J, McCaffrey G, et al. Efficacy and mechanism of action of turmeric supplements in the treatment of experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Nov;54(11):3452-64.
[4] Andrew Weil, MD. Holy Basil to Combat Stress? http:///drw/u/QAA346157/holy-basil-to-combat-
[5] T. Juntachote, E. Berghofer. Antioxidative properties and stability of ethanolic extracts of Holy basil and Galangal. Food Chemistry. 2005 Sept;92(2):193–202. http:///science/article/pii/S0308814604005497
[6] Nutmeg. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http:///EBchecked/topic/422816/nutmeg
[7] Olajide OA, Ajayi FF, Ekhelar AI, Awe SO, Makinde JM, Alada AR. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract. Psychotherapy Research: PTR. 1999 Jun;13(4):344-5.
[8] Mueller, Monica, Stefanie Hobiger, and Alois Jungbauer. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from fruits, herbs and spices. Food Chemistry. 122 (2010) 987–996.
[9] NTP Concept Document: Gum Guggul. National Institute of Health. 19 Oct. 2005. http:///go/nom .
[10] Singh A, Malhotra S, Subban R. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from Indian medicinal plants. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2008. 3(1):  57-72.
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[12] Kunnumakkara AB, et al. Gossypin, a pentahydroxy glucosyl flavone, inhibits the transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1-mediated NF-kappaB activation pathway, leading to potentiation of apoptosis, suppression of invasion, and abrogation of osteoclastogenesis. Blood. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):5112-21.
[13] NS Parmar, MN Ghosh. Anti-inflammatory activity of gossypin of bioflavonoid isolated from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. Research Paper. 1978. 10(4): 227-293.
[14] National Center for Natural and Alternative Medicine (NCNAM). Herbs at a Glance: Cat's Claw http:///health/catclaw.
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[16] http:///pubmed/21876795
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A variety of allergic or allergic-like NSAID hypersensitivity reactions follow the ingestion of NSAIDs. These hypersensitivity reactions differ from the other adverse reactions listed here which are toxicity reactions, . unwanted reactions that result from the pharmacological action of a drug, are dose-related, and can occur in any treated individual; hypersensitivity reactions are idiosyncratic reactions to a drug. [67] Some NSAID hypersensitivity reactions are truly allergic in origin: 1) repetitive IgE -mediated urticarial skin eruptions, angioedema , and anaphylaxis following immediately to hours after ingesting one structural type of NSAID but not after ingesting structurally unrelated NSAIDs; and 2) Comparatively mild to moderately severe T cell -mediated delayed onset (usually more than 24 hour), skin reactions such as maculopapular rash , fixed drug eruptions , photosensitivity reactions , delayed urticaria , and contact dermatitis ; or 3) far more severe and potentially life-threatening t-cell-mediated delayed systemic reactions such as the DRESS syndrome , acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis , the Stevens–Johnson syndrome , and toxic epidermal necrolysis . Other NSAID hypersensitivity reactions are allergy-like symptoms but do not involve true allergic mechanisms; rather, they appear due to the ability of NSAIDs to alter the metabolism of arachidonic acid in favor of forming metabolites that promote allergic symptoms. Afflicted individuals may be abnormally sensitive to these provocative metabolites or overproduce them and typically are susceptible to a wide range of structurally dissimilar NSAIDs, particularly those that inhibit COX1. Symptoms, which develop immediately to hours after ingesting any of various NSAIDs that inhibit COX-1, are: 1) exacerbations of asthmatic and rhinitis (see aspirin-induced asthma ) symptoms in individuals with a history of asthma or rhinitis and 2) exacerbation or first-time development of wheals or angioedema in individuals with or without a history of chronic urticarial lesions or angioedema. [26]

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  • Citation tools Download this article to citation manager Cohen Benjamin L , Sachar David B . Update on anti-tumor necrosis factor agents and other new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease BMJ 2017; 357 :j2505
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    When and how much to take
    NSAIDs should ideally be taken with some food, or at least with milk or yoghurt to avoid irritation of the gastric mucosa (. the inner lining of the stomach). It is important not to exceed the recommended dose to avoid possible serious side-effects. There is also no benefit in taking more than a certain dose, since these drugs have a ceiling effect. This means that above a certain dose, taking even more of this medication will not yield any extra beneficial effects, but will considerably increase the risk for side-effects.

    Anti inflammatory steroid drugs

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  • Citation tools Download this article to citation manager Cohen Benjamin L , Sachar David B . Update on anti-tumor necrosis factor agents and other new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease BMJ 2017; 357 :j2505
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