If the injured worker has not resumed near normal work duties after eight weeks of full conservative therapy including adherence to a graded exercise program, a referral to a physician trained and experienced in the evaluation and treatment of occupational disorders or an orthopedic surgeon is recommended. Consultation should include a complete evaluation and recommendations for treatment and return to appropriate work. If the condition becomes chronic or disabling despite full conservative treatment including appropriate medical, rehabilitative, and ergonomic interventions (and surgery if indicated), the injured worker should be rated for permanent disability. If psychosocial issues are judged to contribute delayed recovery heightened disability, it may be appropriate to have a psychiatric evaluation.
Shoulder arthrography can be used to study tears of the rotator cuff , glenoid labrum and biceps .  The type of contrast injected into the joint depends on the subsequent imaging that is planned. For pneumoarthrography, gas is used, for CT or radiographs, a water-soluble radiopaque contrast, and for MRI, gadolinium . Double-contrast arthrography can be used for more anatomically complex cases, though its use is relatively infrequent. The needle is radiographically guided into the glenohumeral joint space, after which the patient is evaluated by fluoroscopy, CT or MRI. The gadolinium in the contrast fluid yields a bright signal on T1 weighted images allowing for better evaluation of the joint capsule , the articular surface of the bones and, in particular, the labral cartilage. MR arthrography is most often used in evaluation of the hip and acetabular labrum , of the shoulder rotator cuff and glenoid labrum , and less often in the wrist.  Arthrograms can be diagnostic and therapeutic. Therapeutic arthrograms often distend the joint with cortisone and lidocaine, with a common site being the shoulder. Diagnostic arthrograms can be direct, as described above with penetration of the joint, or indirect, by a venous injection of contrast material and delayed imaging with CT or MRI. 
Contrast is used to verify epidural location and to indicate the distribution of injectate. Some physicians use contrast as a volume expander while others prefer saline for this use. The contrast is typically nonionic and lowosmolar. In patients with contrast allergies gadolinium can be safely used in most lumbar procedures. 30,31,52,53 If using gadolinium, the amount should be just enough to document epidural injection. Gadolinium should not be used as a substitute for volume expander. The typical amount of contrast or contrastsaline mixture used for either cervical or lumbar interlaminar epidurography is 4 cc to 5 cc (less in nerve blocks; see below). A smaller amount will not provide sufficient contrast for an epidurogram to evaluate for adhesions or distribution of injectate. For coding purposes, an epidurogram is considered to have been performed when approximately 4 cc to 5 cc of contrast is injected regardless of the route (transforaminal or interlaminar). The report, CPT code, and amount billed must be adjusted if an epidurogram is not performed. The amount of contrast injected may be reduced in spinal stenosis. Many patients will feel pressure or leg cramping from almost any volume, no matter how small. Patients undergoing first-time injections may confuse this with pain. Careful questioning and reassurance that pressure is normal will be adequate in most cases. The injectate volume should be reduced if significant pain is experienced.