Embryofetal development studies were conducted with pregnant rabbits dosed with mometasone furoate by either the topical dermal route or oral route throughout the period of organogenesis. In the study using the topical dermal route, mometasone furoate caused multiple malformations in fetuses (., flexed front paws, gallbladder agenesis, umbilical hernia, hydrocephaly) at an exposure approximately 3 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m 2 basis with maternal topical dermal doses of 150 mcg/kg and above). In the study using the oral route, mometasone furoate caused increased fetal resorptions and cleft palate and/or head malformations (hydrocephaly and domed head) at an exposure approximately 1/2 of the MRHD (on AUC basis with a maternal oral dose of 700 mcg/kg). At an exposure approximately 2 times the MRHD (on an AUC basis with a maternal oral dose of 2800 mcg/kg), most litters were aborted or resorbed. No effects were observed at an exposure approximately 1/10 of the MRHD (on an AUC basis with a maternal oral dose of 140 mcg/kg).
Angiotensin II has a direct effect on the proximal tubules to increase Na + reabsorption . It has a complex and variable effect on glomerular filtration and renal blood flow depending on the setting. Increases in systemic blood pressure will maintain renal perfusion pressure; however, constriction of the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles will tend to restrict renal blood flow. The effect on the efferent arteriolar resistance is, however, markedly greater, in part due to its smaller basal diameter; this tends to increase glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure and maintain glomerular filtration rate . A number of other mechanisms can affect renal blood flow and GFR. High concentrations of Angiotensin II can constrict the glomerular mesangium, reducing the area for glomerular filtration. Angiotensin II is a sensitizer to tubuloglomerular feedback , preventing an excessive rise in GFR. Angiotensin II causes the local release of prostaglandins, which, in turn, antagonize renal vasoconstriction. The net effect of these competing mechanisms on glomerular filtration will vary with the physiological and pharmacological environment.
Unicompartmental knee replacement. Approximately 30 percent of people with knee osteoarthritis have disease that is largely restricted to one area of the joint. In these cases, unicompartmental knee replacement (also called partial knee replacement) may offer the same improvement and function as total knee replacement but with less trauma and better range of motion. A 2007 review that compared unicompartmental knee replacement with total knee replacement found a similar improvement in function, but fewer complications and less need for revision surgery after unicompartmental surgery.