c, cyclopentylpropionic and enathoic acids) at the 17-betqa hydroxyl group. Esterified forms of testosterone are polar than free testosterone and are absorbed more slowly from the area of injection. Esterified forms of testosterone are designed to prolong the window of effect following injection allowing for a less frequent injection schedule compared to injections of free (unesterified) steroid. Lixus Test 400 is designed to provide a rapid peak in testosterone levels (24 – 48 hours after injection) and maintain levels for about 14 days.
Different testosterone esters are often blended into one injectable preparation. In some cases up to seven esters are used, but the most popular formulation is that of Sustanon 250 where four esters are mixed together. This is done to take advantage of the faster acting esters while still only requiring weekly or bi-weekly injections. It is often believed to be a superior form of testosterone, but in reality it’s nothing more than just testosterone. One drawback of testosterone blends are that they incorporate esters with long carbon chains and those chains occupy allot of molecular weight, so the actual dosage of hormone is less than one would obtain from shorter esters like propionate. Testosterone blends are most useful during bulking phases where frequent injections are not possible.
AAS can have a harmful effect on blood cholesterol. This may be a decrease in the level of “good” HDL cholesterol, a shift in the balance towards the risk of atherosclerosis. The relative effect of AAS on lipids depends on the dose, the route of administration, the type of steroid and the level of resistance to hepatic metabolism. AAS can have a negative impact on blood pressure and triglycerides, reduce the relaxation of the vascular endothelium, provoke ventricular hypertrophy, potentially increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and heart attack. Testosterone has less severe effects on cardiovascular risk factors compared to synthetic drugs. It is open to metabolism in the liver and has less effect on the regulation of cholesterol by the liver. The aromatization of testosterone in estradiol can also mitigate the negative effect of androgens on blood lipids. In one study, the consumption of 280 mg of testosterone enanthate for 12 weeks caused a small but insignificant decrease in the level of HDL, but when taken together with aromatase inhibitors, the decrease was higher (by 25%). Studies in which patients took 300 mg of testosterone enanthate for 20 weeks showed a 13% reduction in HDL-C level, and 21% at a dose of 600 mg. It is necessary to take into account the negative effect of aromatase inhibitors. Because of the positive effect of estrogen on blood lipids, on the course it is better to use instead of aromatase inhibitors simple anti-estrogens, such as clomiphene or tamoxifen. This will improve the level of lipids and compensate for some of the side effects of androgens. At doses of 600 mg or less per week, the effects on lipids will be noticeable, but insignificant, and anti-estrogens may not be needed. Doses of 600 mg or less, are not able to make statistically significant changes in the level of HDL-LPG, triglycerides, apolipoproteins, in the level of C-reactive protein and in insulin sensitivity. When used in moderate doses, testosterone esters are considered the safest among all AAS.
To reduce the burden on the cardiovascular system, it is recommended to minimize the intake of saturated fats, cholesterol and simple carbohydrates during the AAS course. Recommended use of additives, such as fish oil, lipid stabil or similar products.