Releases epinephrine norepinephrine and corticosteroids

If OAA is converted to PEP by mitochondrial PEPCK, it is transported to the cytosol where it is a direct substrate for gluconeogenesis and nothing further is required. Transamination of OAA to aspartate allows the aspartate to be transported to the cytosol where the reverse transamination occurs yielding cytosolic OAA. This transamination reaction requires continuous transport of glutamate into, and 2-oxoglutatrate (α-ketoglutarate) out of, the mitochondrion. Therefore, this process is limited by the availability of these other substrates. Either of these latter two reactions will predominate when the substrate for gluconeogenesis is lactate. Whether mitochondrial decarboxylation or transamination occurs is a function of the availability of PEPCK or transamination intermediates.

Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine within the adrenal medulla, which are small glands associated with the kidneys. Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system synapse within the adrenals. Activation of these preganglionic fibers releases acetylcholine, which binds to postjunctional nicotinic receptors in the tissue. This leads to stimulation of NE synthesis within adenomedullary cells, but unlike sympathetic neurons, there is an additional enzyme (phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase) that adds a methyl group to the NE molecule to form epinephrine. The epinephrine is released into the blood perfusing the glands and carried throughout the body.

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Triglycerides are transported through the blood to appropriate tissues ( adipose , muscle , etc.) by lipoproteins such as Very-Low-Density-Lipoproteins ( VLDL ). Triglycerides present on the VLDL undergo lipolysis by the cellular lipases of target tissues, which yields glycerol and free fatty acids . Free fatty acids released into the blood are then available for cellular uptake. [11] Free fatty acids not immediately taken up by cells may bind to albumin for transport to surrounding tissues that require energy. Serum albumin is the major carrier of free fatty acids in the blood. [12] The glycerol also enters the bloodstream and is absorbed by the liver or kidney where it is converted to glycerol 3-phosphate by the enzyme glycerol kinase . Hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate is converted mostly into dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and then glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P) to rejoin the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathway.

Releases epinephrine norepinephrine and corticosteroids

releases epinephrine norepinephrine and corticosteroids

Triglycerides are transported through the blood to appropriate tissues ( adipose , muscle , etc.) by lipoproteins such as Very-Low-Density-Lipoproteins ( VLDL ). Triglycerides present on the VLDL undergo lipolysis by the cellular lipases of target tissues, which yields glycerol and free fatty acids . Free fatty acids released into the blood are then available for cellular uptake. [11] Free fatty acids not immediately taken up by cells may bind to albumin for transport to surrounding tissues that require energy. Serum albumin is the major carrier of free fatty acids in the blood. [12] The glycerol also enters the bloodstream and is absorbed by the liver or kidney where it is converted to glycerol 3-phosphate by the enzyme glycerol kinase . Hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate is converted mostly into dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) and then glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P) to rejoin the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathway.

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