Steroid hormones are synthesized in what part of the cell

The genetic basis of four forms of severe hypertension transmitted on an autosomal basis has also been determined. All of these conditions are characterized by salt-sensitive increases in blood pressure, indicating an increased mineralocorticoid effect. The four disorders—aldosteronism, mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, activating mutation of the mineralocorticoid receptor, and Liddle syndrome—are a consequence of either abnormal biosynthesis, abnormal metabolism, or abnormal action of steroid hormones and the development of hypertension. Adrenal insufficiency is known as Addison’s disease and causes death within two weeks unless treated. Classical Addison’s disease results from a loss of both cortisol and aldosterone secretion as a result of the near total or total destruction of both adrenal glands.

The secretion of cortisol is mainly controlled by three inter-communicating regions of the body, the hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland and the adrenal gland . This is called the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. When cortisol levels in the blood are low, a group of cells in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus releases corticotrophin-releasing hormone , which causes the pituitary gland to secrete another hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone , into the bloodstream. High levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone are detected in the adrenal glands and stimulate the secretion of cortisol, causing blood levels of cortisol to rise. As the cortisol levels rise, they start to block the release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary. As a result the adrenocorticotropic hormone levels start to drop, which then leads to a drop in cortisol levels. This is called a negative feedback loop.

Depending on the number and character of their functional groups, steroid molecules may show diverse reactivities. Moreover, the reactivity of a functional group varies according to its location within the molecule (for example, esters are formed readily by 3-OH groups but only with difficulty by the 11β-OH group). An important property of steroids is polarity —., their solubility in oxygen-containing solvents (., water and alcohols ) rather than hydrocarbon solvents (., hexane and benzene ). Hydroxyl, ketonic, or ionizable (capable of dissociating to form electrically charged particles) groups in a steroid molecule increase its polarity to an extent that is strongly influenced by the spatial arrangement of the atoms within the molecule.

Progestins , the most important of which is progesterone , are the other type of female sex hormone and are named for their role in maintaining pregnancy (pro- gestation ). Estrogens and progestins are secreted cyclically during menstruation . During the menstrual cycle , the ruptured ovarian follicle (the corpus luteum ) of the ovary produces progesterone, which renders the uterine lining receptive to the implantation of a fertilized ovum . Should this occur, the placenta becomes the main source of progesterone, without which the pregnancy would terminate. As pregnancy progresses, placental production of progesterone increases, and these high doses suppress ovulation , preventing a second conception . The contraceptive quality of progesterone led to the development of structurally modified progestins and estrogens—the oral contraceptives known as birth-control pills, used by women to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

Steroid hormones are synthesized in what part of the cell

steroid hormones are synthesized in what part of the cell

Progestins , the most important of which is progesterone , are the other type of female sex hormone and are named for their role in maintaining pregnancy (pro- gestation ). Estrogens and progestins are secreted cyclically during menstruation . During the menstrual cycle , the ruptured ovarian follicle (the corpus luteum ) of the ovary produces progesterone, which renders the uterine lining receptive to the implantation of a fertilized ovum . Should this occur, the placenta becomes the main source of progesterone, without which the pregnancy would terminate. As pregnancy progresses, placental production of progesterone increases, and these high doses suppress ovulation , preventing a second conception . The contraceptive quality of progesterone led to the development of structurally modified progestins and estrogens—the oral contraceptives known as birth-control pills, used by women to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

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